N° 35. L'espace du capitalisme.
Totalitarisme et impérialisme

Mars 2004

Numéro disponible en ligne sur le site du Cairn : http://www.cairn.info/revue-actuel-marx.htm


[Sommaire] [Présentation] [Auteurs] [Abstracts ]

[POUR DISCUTER : Tribune de discussion]

 

SOMMAIRE

Présentation 

DOSSIER I : L’espace  du capitalisme  
rassemblé par Eustache Kouvélakis et Sébastien Budgen 

David Harvey, Réinventer la géographie 

David Harvey, L’urbanisation du capital 

David Harvey, Le « Nouvel Impérialisme » : accumula­tion par expropriation 

DOSSIER II : totalitarisme et Impérialisme  

 Domenico Losurdo, Guerre préventive, américanisme et antiaméricanisme 

Domenico Losurdo, Pour une critique de la catégorie de totalitarisme 

Didier Renault, Nietzsche contre la Révolution  A propos du livre de Domenico Losurdo : Nietzsche, il ribelle aristocratico 

INTERVENTIONS 

André Tosel, Anti-Polis. Vers l’autoliquidation de la démocratie ?  

Denis Collin, Kant, Marx et la question de la morale 

LIVRES 

In memoriam 

Pierre Vilar, Pensar históricamente (Pablo F. Luna

Philosophie 

Stefano Catucci, Per una filosofia povera. La Grande Guerra, l’esperienza, il senso : a partire da Lukács (N. Tertulian) 

Franck Fischbach, L’être et l’acte. Enquête sur les fondements de l’ontologie moderne de l’agir   (E. Renault) 

Le Capital 

Antoine Artous, Travail et émancipation sociale, Marx et le travail (J. Bidet) 

Anselm Jappe, Les aventures de la marchandise, Pour une nouvelle critique de la valeur (J. Bidet) 

Le mouvement du monde 

Etienne Balibar, L’Europe, l’Amérique, la guerre. Réflexions sur la médiation européenne   (E. Renault) 

Alex Callinicos, An Anti-Capitalist Manifesto  

  (F. Lizàrraga) 

Sciences sociales 

Patrick Cingolani, La République, les sociologues et la question politique (S. Béroud) 

 Philippe Corcuff, Philosophie Politique (J.-L. Lanher)


Le capitalisme n’a pas seulement une histoire, mais aussi une géo­graphie. Il possède un art complexe de s’approprier les lieux, de les configurer à sa convenance, d’occuper la terre, de construire et de dé­truire. Reconnaître cet espace. Décrypter les mythes qui le recouvrent. Deux chercheurs, un géographe et un philosophe, ouvrent ici la voie.


AUTEURS

Denis Collin est professeur agrégé de philosophie, enseignant en lycée et chargé de cours en philosophie de la connaissance à l’Université de Rouen. Sa thèse de doctorat porte sur La théorie de la connaissance chez Marx, L’Harmattan, 1996. Il a publié récemment Morale et Justice sociale, Seuil, 2001 et Questions de morale, Armand Colin, 2003. Il est membre de la rédaction de la revue Utopie Critique.

David Harvey est professeur d’urbanisme et de géographie à la City University de New York (CUNY). Parmi ses récents ouvrages, citons : The New Imperialism, Oxford University Press, 2003 ; Paris, Capital of Modernity, Routledge, 2003 ; Spaces of Capital, Routledge, 2001 ; Spaces of Hope, University of Edinburgh Press, 2000 ; The Limits to Capital, Réédition Verso, 2000 ; The Condition of Postmodernity, Basil Blackwell, 1990 et The Urban Experience, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. 

Domenico Losurdo. Professeur d’histoire de la philosophie à l’Université d’Urbino et président de l’Association internationale Hegel-Marx pour la pensée dialectique. Plusieurs de ses ouvrages ont été traduits en français. Hegel et les libéraux (PUF, Paris, 1992) ; Autocensure et compromis dans la pensée politique de Kant (Lille, Presses Universitaires, 1994) ; Hegel et la catastrophe allemande (Michel, 1994) ; Heidegger et l’idéologie de la guerre (PUF, coll. Actuel Marx Confrontation, 1998) ; Fuir l’histoire ? Essai sur l’autophobie des communistes, Le Temps des Cerises, Paris, 2000. Vient juste de sortir : Démocratie et bonapartisme. Triomphe et décadence du suffrage universel, Le Temps des Cerises, Paris, 2003. Domenico Losurdo a publié une monographie monumentale sur Nietzsche : Nietzsche, il ribelle aristocratico. Biografia intellettuale e bilancio critico, Bollati Boringhieri, Torini, 2002.

Didier Renault, enseignant. Etudes de philosophie à l’EHESS. Il étudie depuis plusieurs années l’influence et la propagation de l’idéologie de Richard Wagner et de son « cercle de Bayreuth » en Allemagne 

André Tosel est professeur de philosophie à l’Universitéde Nice-Sophia Antipolis. Il a publié La représentation et ses crises, Presses Universitaires  de Franche Comté, 2001 ; il a collaboré au Dictionnaire Marx  contemporain (dir. J. Bidet et E. Kouvelakis), PUF, 2001, au volume Aspects politiques de la mondialisation (dir J.Baechler et R.Kamrane), PUF, 2003 ; il a dirigé le n° 5 de la revue Noesis, 2003, Vrin, Formes et crises  de la rationalité au XXe siècle, publication du Centre de Recherche d’Histoire des Idées, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis.

 ABSTRACTS

Denis Collin, Marx, Kant and the Moral Question.  

We have not to choose between Marx and Kant. Kant’s ethics is not an abstract thought to which one could oppose Marx’s practical thought. In addition, a normative dimension appears constantly in Marx’s works, legitimating the communist prospect, as an achievement and a liberation of mankind, forming an effective community. Lastly, the old historical materialism, conceived as both a scientific method of analysis and a teleological philosophy, cannot be accepted any more. The power of Marx’s scientific analysis invites us to reconsider the standards of justice and law in conformity with his emancipatory objectives. 

David Harvey. Reinventing Geography.  

In this interview with the British journal New Left Review, David Harvey summarises the main stages of his trajectory, from his first works, which were positivistic in inspiration, to his conversion to Marxism and from his fieldwork to his theorisation of urban space, to his reflections on postmodernity and the transformation of contemporary capitalism, particularly in its global aspects. It is this latter perspective, analysed via the prism of imperialism, which is at the centre of Harveys current research and which has political conclusions which relate to the contemporary meaning of the socialist project.  

David Harvey, The Urbanization of Capital.  

This article analyses the creation of capitalist urban space during the so-called « Keynesian », or « Fordist », epoch and the transition from this epoch to the era of so-called « post-Fordism » which we are currently experiencing. The production of a spatial fix which is specific to each phase of development is, for capitalism, both a means of managing its internal contradictions, thus ensuring its survival, and of displacing these contradictions onto a new terrain. This terrain is the result notably of the tensions and constraints inherent in the spatial fix inherited from the previous period and remodelled by the constant transformation of the mode of production. The Keynesian urban space, constituted by cities oriented towards demand, and moulded by the joint intervention of state planning and credit-based finance, is succeeded by the post-Fordist city, which is reshaped by intensified interurban and interregional competition, and by the exacerbation of the polarisation of, and separation between, social classes. The reproduction of social relations by and through space poses new problems, at the same time that it opens new possibilities, for class struggles and alternative socialist projects.  

David Harvey, The « New’imperialism » : Accumulation by Dispossession.  

It is possible to distinguish throughout the long history of capitalism at a world scale two principal forms of capital accumulation : that based on expanded reproduction, the extraction of surplus-value by means of purely economic constraint, and that based on forms of extra-economic coercion, on violence, predation, expropriation, which illustrates the moment of « primitive accumulation ». This moment, which is characterised as « accumulation by dispossession » is not simply a passing phase of early capitalism, but is rather a permanent modality by which it seeks to resolve its contradictions and to extend its ascendancy over new terrain on a world scale. The current period, marked by neoliberal hegemony, is precisely one in which accumulation by dispossession once again has the upper hand over expanded reproduction, thereby outlining the contours of a « new imperialism », dominated by US power.  

Domenico Losurdo, Preventive War, Pro-Americanicanism and Anti-Americanism.  

Protests against the war in Iraq or against American support for Israel have led to the accusation that there now exists an Anti-Americanism of the left that is virtually indistinguishable from an Anti-Americanism of the right. D. Losurdo points out that the United States was actually endowed with a certain fascination for Marx, Engels, Lenin, Boukharin or Gramsci, and that the indignation which they voiced concerning the regime of white supremacy was not unmitigated. In contrast, an American Herrenvolk democracy met with widespread admiration in the leading circles of the Hitlerian regime, while American racial theorists such as Ford and Stoddard received a warm welcome in Berlin. The current celebration in the US of the imperial presidency on the part of fundamentalist Christians, along with the contempt recently shown toward America’s « allies », stems from an exclusivist nationalism which harks back to this tradition.  

Domenico Losurdo, The Case for a Critique of the Category of Totalitarianism.  

In this article Domenico Losurdo sketches a history of the category of totalitarianism, rehearsing the various shifts it has been subject to since the October revolution. While the roots of the notion are to be located both in the violence inflected by the colonial enterprise upon indigenous populations and the violence exercised at the very heart of the capitalist metropolis, upon the poor and the outcast, such violence did take on a number of unprecedented characteristics in the twentieth century phenomenon of total war. The imperatives of the cold war were subsequently to lead western liberals to the formulation of a strange indictment of the revolutionary tradition between 1789 and 1917. This involved both a selective enumeration of horrors and the omission of Hitler’s invocation, in Mein Kampf of certain American and British precedents.  

Didier Renault, Nietzsche’s Anti-revolutionary Stance : Some Remarks on the Book by Domenico Losurdo, Nietzsche, il ribelle aristocratico, biografia intelletuale et bilancio critico, Bollati Boringhieri, Turin, 2002, 1168 p.  

Facing the flood of contradictory interpretations of Nietzsche’s writings, is it still possible to assert anything positive about the political and intellectual stance of the author of « Zarathoustra » ? In his massive study, Domenico Losurdo, Professor of Philosophy at the university of Urbino, argues that Nietzsche’s thoughts, even the most provocative, such as his defence of slavery or eugenics, should not be read as simple metaphors or innocent speculations aiming at the moral improvement of man, but constitute a specific, agressively aristocratic, response to what, according to Nietzsche, is the main threat of his time : the rise of revolutionary ideals, and global democratisation of society.  

André Tosel, Anti-Polis. A Self-Destruction of Democracy 

Conceived as a pure theory, and analysed in its principles, democracy displays its internal contradictions. But only its real, impure history reveals the conditions in which these principles are revised downwards, via the theory of the political market and of the representative oligarchy, – Weber and Schumpeter. This new democracy, which opposes its realism to a pure normativism, covers the current process of a self-destruction into self-referring practices, which exclude the bulk of mankind. 

POUR DISCUTER : Tribune de discussion